The process of making welds by joining metals together using a laser beam is referred to as laser welding. The process requires a concentrated heat source, thin materials, and high-speed. There are two types of processes in laser welding viz. conduction limited and keyhole.
Laser welding is one of the most popular and advanced kinds of welding as it creates fine quality end products. Hence, it is used in every area of industrial manufacturing like aerospace, automobile, jewelry, and many others. Another reason why laser welding is gaining popularity is the increasing use of additive manufacturing. 3D printing needs high-end welding processes to create complex prototypes.
The technology of lasers was introduced by Albert Einstein, known as laser welding. After that 32 years later, the first experiment was successful that proved Einstein’s theories. Laser welding was first introduced in 1967, which was carried out by oxygen assisted gas and concentrated CO2 laser beam.
Types of Lasers Used in Welding
- Laser in solid-state
It involves pulse penetration with 1 to 100 Joules Of energy, 1 to 10 milliseconds time, and 1micrometer wavelengths.
- Gas Lasers
The lasers are a mixture of different gases and are most preferred as they use low-current, high-voltage power. Helium, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen are the most used gases in laser welding.
- Diode lasers
This laser is used for complex elements as well as hard metal that are difficult to weld. Along with diode lasers, it is necessary to use inter gases for shielding as the materials are very reactive.
Working of Laser Beam
- A pump is used to excite the electrons of the laser and increase its energy temporarily.
- The electrons cannot hold this excess of energy for long and lose it by emitting photons. The photons produced by such a method are used to produce lasers.
- This initiates the stimulated emissions, where these photons strike electrons in order to multiply its number. The photons are coherent i.e. it has same wavelength and direction.
- These photons are directed through the laser mediums and struck on the resonators to increase the emissions.
- The focus on the lasers is targeted on the surface of the materials. The light energy converts into thermal energy. This melts the material, which is known as surface conductivity.
Types of Laser Welding
- Penetration Welding
This type is also known as keyhole welding because the laser is used to create and hole on the surface of the material. The hole is further sealed by another molten weld. The metals used in penetration welding are Platinum, Low alloy and stainless steel, Aluminum, Nickel, Carbon steel, etc.
- Conduction Welding
This process requires relatively low energy and used to make welds as well as weld nuggets. Conduction welding is carried out in two-mode viz. Direct heating and energy transmission.
Application of Laser Welding
- Miniature bearing welding
- Miniature watch wheel welding
Pressure sensor welding
- Watch face appliques welding
- Battery welding
- Spiral on virole welding of mechanical watches
The most reliable source for laser welders is Mikro Innotech India Pvt Ltd who has been offering laser welding solutions since 2008. The company has its footing into Indian as well as international markets. Their laser welds are of the highest quality components with the state of the art, Noone Software package.